The PROVIDE project involves thirteen Countries of the EU (Finland, Estonia, Poland, Czech Republic, Germany, Netherlands, France, UK, Spain, Italy, Austria, Bulgaria and Romania). Within each of these countries, a case study region (CSR) has been defined that is used to show the EU level Public good data on local level. These areas have been defined by the PROVIDE partners within their countries, as representative regions, mostly corresponding to the programming level units for policy implementation.
Most of the case study regions (9 out of 13) are characterized by a prevailing share of agricultural land with respect to other land uses, whereas the remaining four regions, located in Finland, Estonia, Romania and Czech Republic have highest share of woodland. Among environmental issues, most common concerns affecting the majority of study areas are water quality degradation and water scarcity, loss of soil functionality and farmland biodiversity, and risk of landslide and floodings. On the one hand, many of those public bads (e.g. water pollution) are related to intensive agriculture and water management for agriculture (e.g. Italy, Germany, Spain, Scotland, France, Bulgaria, Poland) and to climate change (Czech Republic). On the other hand, some public bads appear to be linked to the abandonment of agricultural land (e.g. flooding risk), which was indicated as another factor negatively affecting the provision of public goods by agriculture in a few case study regions (Italy, Spain, France and Poland).