Proposed governance mix for the public good pollination:

Agri-Environmental Schemes (AES) are aimed at incentivizing the provision of a wide range of public goods (PG) and ecosystem services that are key for the sustainability of our societies. Their effectiveness is often debated, since for example, the conservation of biodiversity and natural resources requires a landscape perspective that implies the coordination of efforts among the individual, mostly farmers, decision makers. An increasing field of research focuses on the design of such policy schemes, like the agglomeration bonus. These researches often rely on simplified model structures that do not endogenize the formation of the group of farmers cooperating, the coalition.

Proposed governance mix for the public good water availability

The latest two Rural Development Plans of Emilia-Romagna provided financial support for the construction of rainwater harvesting reservoirs with the objective of rationalizing water use and to preserve the consumption of groundwater. Personal communication with key regional stakeholders provided hints on the interest on this type of policies.