Water related public good issues in PROVIDE deal with the effects of agriculture and forestry on water quality, water availability, but also water retention as driver for reducing of flood risk. Issues include low groundwater quality due fertilisation and plant protection and problems with water availability due to irrigation and climate change.

In the intensively used arable areas “Marchfeld” and “Ugie river catchment” (AT-1, UK-1), water quality is threatened by agricultural fertilisation and plant protection measures (nitrate, pesticides). In DE-1, water quantity/retention is threatened by the drainage of the peatlands. In the Bulgarian Central Planning region (BG-1), water quality is not critically endangered at the current state, but protection for the future appears important. In the Odet watershed in Brittany (FR-1), the abandonment of current wetland management is assumed to endanger the wetlands functioning as areas for water purification and therefore water quality. Also the water retention potential, as a driver for the reduction of flood risk is assumed an important local public good provided by the wetlands of the Odet watershed (FR-1). In the mountain areas of the Ravenna province (IT-2), the high water intensity of the agricultural production in combination with low precipitation and scare freshwater provision are considered the main drivers for water scarcity and therefor set at risk the PG water availability. Also in Northern Bohemia in CZ-1, water availability is at the focus of interest, while causes for water scarcity are rather seen in increasing drought seasons due to climate change (increases in temperature and weather irregularities) than related to management issues (80% of region is managed as grassland).